Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices. Topic SG-19. Paratransit Service Delivery Models for Small Systems

Demand for demand response services including Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) complementary paratransit continues to grow while resources are dwindling. Because of this, transit agencies continue to explore models to more effectively meet growing demand. Small agencies in particular may be finding unique and better ways to adopt “hybrid” service models (such as brokerage service, transportation networking companies (TNCs) or mobility managers) and community-based operations using non-traditional operators. The objective of this synthesis is to document, for a comprehensive set of service models, the way various elements of the service and contracts are structured to enhance the likelihood of achieving certain results related to cost efficiency, service quality, or the balance of the two. The synthesis will provide examples from the industry of what is currently being implemented. In particular, this synthesis will explore delivery models for small systems (a total fleet of no more than 50 vehicles). It will document the way various service and contract models are structured to enhance the knowledgebase of small agencies. The document should examine intended and unintended outcomes, advantages and disadvantages, and the balance of cost efficiency and service quality of the delivery models. Information to be gathered will include (not an exhaustive list): Service Delivery Models (1) In-house (a) All operations in-house (2) Outsourced (a) Turnkey (all services contracted, to include eligibility, call center, and vehicle operations); (b) Various combination of operations, maintenance and vehicle ownership (c) Non-dedicated service providers used for ADA paratransit service; (d) Management contract (e) User-Side Subsidies (3) Combination of in-house and outsourced (4) Other Vehicle configuration (1) Combination of fixed route and demand response (2) Vehicle types (3) Internal vehicle capacity Agency Configuration: (1) Governance structure (2) Funding stream (3) Ridership (4) Service Area Characteristics (e.g. population density, major trip generators) and Service Statistics (5) Who has responsibility collecting data and how often is it reported? (6) Technology Contract/operating agreement structure: (1) Use of assets (who owns, maintains, replaces) (2) Number and function of staff dedicated to management of the contract (3) Who has responsibility collecting data and how often is it reported? Partnership agreements This synthesis should include a literature review, practice overview of existing service delivery models, and survey of transit agencies which are geographically and structurally diverse, with service delivery models for demand response services. A minimum of ten case examples of different transit systems and different service delivery models for different type of demand response services including ADA complementary paratransit should be studied.


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  • Status: Active
  • Funding: $45000
  • Contract Numbers:

    Project J-07, Topic SG-19

  • Sponsor Organizations:

    Transit Cooperative Research Program

    Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC    20001

    Federal Transit Administration

    1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
    Washington, DC  United States  20590
  • Project Managers:

    Garcia-Colberg, Mariela

  • Performing Organizations:

    Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI)

    400 Harvey Mitchell Parkway South
    Suite 300
    College Station, TX  United States  77845-4375
  • Principal Investigators:

    Rodman, Will

  • Start Date: 20201008
  • Expected Completion Date: 0
  • Actual Completion Date: 0

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01741228
  • Record Type: Research project
  • Source Agency: Transportation Research Board
  • Contract Numbers: Project J-07, Topic SG-19
  • Files: TRB, RIP
  • Created Date: May 25 2020 3:04PM