Trip and Parking Generation at Transit-Oriented Developments: Two Case Studies in Texas

The decision on how best to allocate land around transit stations is a debated topic, with transit officials often opting for park-and-ride lots over active uses such as multifamily housing, office, and retail organized into transit-oriented developments (TODs). Providing large park-and-ride lots has been the default strategy to maximize transit ridership in the short-run. But is it the best strategy in the long run? The debate continues when the land is developed, with officials usually assuming that TODs require the same number of parking spaces as conventional development and that transit stations require the same number of park-and-ride spaces as non-TOD stations, even if much of the travel demand is captured internally and much of the transit demand is generated by TODs themselves. Balancing the amount of parking at TODs with the need to create a pedestrian-friendly environment and encourage mixed-use development can be complicated. In this study, the research team proposes to measure trip and parking generation at two TOD sites in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington (TX) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) using intercept and parking occupancy surveys. Based on the survey data, this project aims to determine how many fewer vehicle trips are generated at TODs and how much less parking is required at TODs, than Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) guidelines would suggest. This study follows a trip and parking generation study by the authors at six exemplary TODs and one TAD (Transit Adjacent Development) across the U.S. (Ewing et al., 2017; Tian et al., under review). To the team's knowledge, there is only a few studies of trip and parking demands at TODs (defined as mixed-use developments – Handy et al., 2013; Ewing et al., 2017), the others being for residential developments near transit. Expanding on the database on seven station-area developments, this project will add two TOD sites in Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington (TX) MSA, the first region in Texas in the cases in order to achieve better generalizability of the findings.