Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Performance Functions for the Highway Safety Manual

While overall traffic fatalities are decreasing, walking and cycling fatalities are an increasing percentage of total fatalities. In 2012, pedestrians and bicyclists accounted for approximately 16 percent of traffic fatalities. While some states and agencies record detailed pedestrian and bicycle crash data, most motor vehicle crash data sets do not include sufficient detail for rigorous safety analysis for non-fatal crashes. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), under Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) will be asking states to report on performance around pedestrian/bicycle issues, but many states don’t know what data they should be collecting, or how to perform analyses with it to improve infrastructure, or how to develop other potential solutions to address crashes. The lack of quality crash and exposure (e.g., walking and biking volumes) data precludes the development of safety performance functions (SPFs) for walking and cycling as well as rigorous safety analysis to inform and use in tools such as PEDSAFE and BIKESAFE, the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM), and AASHTO’s Highway Safety Manual and its online tool. The ability to estimate crashes for walking and cycling would inform national safety improvements and countermeasure selection. From Swedish walking/bicycling data, it is generally known that many cycle crashes are off the “main” network, and solo; hence, only hospital records contain the cycling crash data, making it difficult to access for SPF development. Research is needed beyond traditional data collection to provide practitioners with reliable walking/cycling crash estimates that can be used throughout the planning and project development processes. The objectives of this project are to (1) identify good surrogate measures that can effectively be used for the more detailed (i.e., segment/intersection volumes) exposure measures to the level of accuracy needed to achieve reliable estimates of pedestrian crashes, including a detailed case study to determine how much data is needed to make reliable conclusions; (2) perform an in-hospital pilot study to improve pedestrian/bicycle data quantity and quality, including geo-referencing, causes, and injury severity; and (3) using this improved data as it becomes available from the previous objectives, develop improved pedestrian/bicycle SPFs for the HSM.


  • English


  • Status: Active
  • Contract Numbers:

    Project 17-84

  • Sponsor Organizations:

    National Cooperative Highway Research Program

    Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC  United States  20001

    American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)

    444 North Capitol Street, NW
    Washington, DC  United States  20001

    Federal Highway Administration

    1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
    Washington, DC  United States  20590
  • Project Managers:

    Rogers, William

  • Performing Organizations:


    425 Volker Boulevard
    Kansas City, MO  United States  64110-2241
  • Principal Investigators:

    Torbic, Darren

  • Start Date: 20160512
  • Expected Completion Date: 0
  • Actual Completion Date: 0
  • Source Data: RiP Project 40849

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01598998
  • Record Type: Research project
  • Source Agency: Transportation Research Board
  • Contract Numbers: Project 17-84
  • Files: TRB, RiP
  • Created Date: May 12 2016 1:00AM