The Dynamics of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in the Secondary Market and Their Implication for Vehicle Demand, Durability, and Emissions

California is one of the first markets in the world to have a significant secondary market for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), which includes both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). This study examines the status of the nascent secondary PEV market in California. Additionally, it examines who purchases these vehicles and how used PEVs are utilized. Researchers examine the role of PEV purchase incentives both via surveys of used PEV buyers and through econometric analysis of detailed micro data. Results suggests that California PEV buyers have significantly higher incomes than the average household. If California seeks to broaden the used PEV market, lower income buyers must be brought into the market. On this count, the used PEV market appears to be beneficial, attracting buyers with slightly lower incomes than in the new PEV market. Results also indicate that used PHEV owners (and, more precisely, short-range used PEV owners) are charging their vehicles less than they could. In addition, results show that early used PEV buyers have significant knowledge gaps, such as being unaware of new PEV purchase incentives, which reduce their ability to compare price options. Overall, the early used PEV buyers were satisfied with the PEV technology and would redo their purchase or buy another PEV. This bodes well for the future of the PEV market. High occupancy vehicle stickers were a powerful motivator for a subset of PHEV used buyers, perhaps due to the lack of new stickers being available at the time of and preceding the survey. Researchers’ econometric analysis shows that the presence of new BEV purchase subsidies correlates with a small net outflow of used PEVs to states that do not offer new BEV subsidies. If this modest exit of PEVs grows over time, it could make it more difficult to achieve state level environmental goals, such as local pollution abatement or state-level GHG reduction targets. The analysis finds that PEV sales to minority groups show no clear signs of market access discrimination in the new or used PEV markets. Finally, the findings show that PHEV and BEV markets and consumers operate differently from each other, suggesting the need to be careful about treating them identically in analysis and policy-formation.

Language

  • English

Project

  • Status: Completed
  • Funding: $300000.00
  • Contract Numbers:

    DTRT13-G-UTC29

    CARB 14-316

  • Sponsor Organizations:

    Air Resources Board (ARB)

    1001 I Street
    Sacramento, CA  United States  95814

    National Center for Sustainable Transportation

    University of California, Davis
    Davis, CA  United States 
  • Managing Organizations:

    National Center for Sustainable Transportation

    University of California, Davis
    Davis, CA  United States 
  • Project Managers:

    Garas, Dahlia

  • Performing Organizations:

    University of California, Davis

    1 Shields Ave
    CA, 95616    United States

    National Center for Sustainable Transportation

    University of California, Davis
    Davis, CA  United States 
  • Principal Investigators:

    Turrentine, Tom

    Tal, Gil

    Rapson, David

  • Start Date: 20141121
  • Expected Completion Date: 20180413
  • Actual Completion Date: 20180413
  • USDOT Program: University Transportation Centers
  • Source Data: RiP Project 37007

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01554055
  • Record Type: Research project
  • Source Agency: National Center for Sustainable Transportation
  • Contract Numbers: DTRT13-G-UTC29, CARB 14-316
  • Files: UTC, RiP
  • Created Date: Feb 25 2015 1:01AM