Evaluation of the Orientation of 90° and 180° Reinforcing Bar Hooks in Wide Members

Longitudinal reinforcing steel in concrete flexural elements is often developed at the end of a concrete member by a 90° or 180° standard hook that is usually oriented such that the hook is in the vertical direction. In some instances, such as the case of a shallow member that is heavily-reinforced with reinforcing bars of large diameter, the standard hook height in plus concrete cover above and below the bar may exceed the thickness of the concrete member. To address this issue, sometimes it is suggested that the hook may tilted from vertical to maintain the required clear cover. The limits of this tilt, however, are not defined or known. To address this issue, the overall goal of the proposed project is to study the influence of tilt angle on the development of standard reinforcing bar hooks and determine determine the limits of reinforcing steel hook tilt, if any, so ultimate performance of the member is not compromised. Design recommendations developed as part of this study will provide clarification to engineers and building code officials regarding limits of tilt of hooked reinforcing bars so that the original intent of hooked bar development is met.


  • English


  • Status: Completed
  • Contract Numbers:



  • Sponsor Organizations:

    Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute

    933 N Plum Grove Rd
    Schaumburg, IL  United States  60173
  • Principal Investigators:

    Sneed, Lesley

  • Start Date: 20090801
  • Expected Completion Date: 0
  • Actual Completion Date: 20110501
  • Source Data: RiP Project 23805

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01466235
  • Record Type: Research project
  • Source Agency: Center for Infrastructure Engineering Studies
  • Contract Numbers: DTRT06-G-0014, 00028102
  • Files: UTC, RiP
  • Created Date: Jan 3 2013 3:12PM