Behavioral Investigation of Temporary and Permanent Pedestrian Infrastructure

Pedestrian infrastructure is generally considered effective at improving pedestrian safety. For example, median refuges appear to improve both pedestrian safety behaviors (e.g., looking for vehicles) and driver safety behaviors (e.g., stopping rate and longer stopping distances) (Pulugurtha et al., 2012). However, pedestrian infrastructure, particularly those which are intended to be in place for a longer period (i.e., permanent), can be relatively expensive to install. A national assessment of pedestrian infrastructure costs in 2013 found that refuge islands had an average cost of $13,520 per island, with a maximum cost of $41,170 per island (Bushell et al., 2013). Agencies often treat sites initially with temporary treatments (e.g., removable bollard refuge islands) to test efficacy, which are also relatively less expensive than more permanent installations. But unlike with more permanent infrastructure, pedestrian behavior at temporary infrastructure relative to permanent infrastructure is less known, as well as how usage interacts with driver factors such as speed and yielding. Furthermore, sets of removable bollards can be damaged, leading to a question of their maintenance and effectiveness over time. This study proposes to test the impact of the efficacy of temporary and permanent pedestrian infrastructure such as curb extensions/bump-out and pedestrian refuge islands as it relates to pedestrian behavior and driver performance.


    • English


    • Status: Active
    • Funding: $205944
    • Contract Numbers:

      1036342 WO#85

    • Sponsor Organizations:

      Minnesota Department of Transportation

      395 John Ireland Boulevard
      St Paul, MN  United States  55155

      Local Road Research Board

      395 John Ireland Boulevard
      St. Paul, Minnesota  United States  55155-1899
    • Principal Investigators:

      Craig, Curtis M

    • Start Date: 20230525
    • Expected Completion Date: 20250531
    • Actual Completion Date: 0

    Subject/Index Terms

    Filing Info

    • Accession Number: 01883932
    • Record Type: Research project
    • Source Agency: Minnesota Department of Transportation
    • Contract Numbers: 1036342 WO#85
    • Files: RIP, STATEDOT
    • Created Date: May 30 2023 1:42PM