Mode Substitutional Patterns of Ridehailing and Micro-Mobility Services

In this study, the research team explores the heterogeneous impacts of ridehailing on the use of other travel modes using survey data (N = 1,438) collected from June to October 2019 (i.e., before the COVID-19 pandemic) across three regions in southern U.S. states: Phoenix, Arizona; Atlanta, Georgia; and Austin, Texas. The research team applies a latent-class cluster analysis to indicators of changes in the use of various travel modes as a result of ridehailing adoption, with covariates of socioeconomics, demographics, a land-use attribute, and individual attitudes. The research team identifies four distinctive latent classes of behavioral changes in response to the use of ridehailing. About half of ridehailing users in the sample (49.7%) are found to behave as Mobility augmenters, who use ridehailing rarely, in addition to other travel modes, and do not change their travel routines much as a result of the adoption of this mobility service. The second largest class includes Exogenous changers (24.5%), whose members report many changes in their use of various travel modes, but which can be largely explained by other reasons. Private car/taxi substituters (15%) frequently hail a ride, and as a result, reduce their use of private vehicles while making more trips by public transit and active modes, as the result of using ridehailing. Interestingly, Transit/active mode substituters (10.8%) often use ridehailing, likely for trips that they previously made by public transit or active modes, and consequently reduce their use of these less-polluting modes while enjoying enhanced mobility. This study reveals substantial heterogeneity in ridehailing impacts, which were masked in previous studies that focused on average impacts, and it suggests that policy responses should be customized by users’ socioeconomics and residential neighborhoods.


  • English


  • Status: Completed
  • Funding: $257684
  • Contract Numbers:


  • Sponsor Organizations:

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology

    University Transportation Centers Program
    Department of Transportation
    Washington, DC  United States  20590
  • Managing Organizations:

    Center for Teaching Old Models New Tricks (TOMNET)

    Arizona State University
    Tempe, AZ  United States  85287
  • Performing Organizations:

    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    790 Atlantic Drive
    Atlanta, GA  United States  30332-0355
  • Principal Investigators:

    Circella, Giovanni

    Mokhtarian, Patricia

  • Start Date: 20200801
  • Expected Completion Date: 20210731
  • Actual Completion Date: 0
  • USDOT Program: University Transportation Centers Program

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01875572
  • Record Type: Research project
  • Source Agency: Center for Teaching Old Models New Tricks (TOMNET)
  • Contract Numbers: 69A3551747116
  • Files: UTC, RIP
  • Created Date: Mar 14 2023 12:31PM