Incorporating Mobility on Demand Into Public Transit in Suburban Areas: A Comparative Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness

The main objective of this study is to understand the relative cost-effectiveness of using different types of mobility on-demand (MOD) services to supplement transit by filling first/last mile gaps compared to conventional alternatives, especially expanding fixed-route services and supporting driving alone with park-and-ride facilities. To do so, this study further develops a cost-effectiveness evaluation approach from a societal perspective and then applies it to selected geographic contexts. In addition, this study aims to inform transit agencies’ decision-making on establishing partnerships with MOD providers to serve first/last mile trips. Moreover, the research will investigate the conditions under which the socially more cost-effective alternatives are consistent with the individual preferences of users from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. To achieve these objectives, this research will address the following questions: (1) From a societal perspective, what factors determine the comparative cost-effectiveness of alternative modes for first/last mile travel? Does lower travel demand density, for example, increase the likelihood for MOD to be more cost-effective? How do socioeconomic factors associated with the riders affect the possibility for fixed-route buses to be a more cost-effective alternative? (2) Under what conditions and arrangements are transit agencies-private service providers partnerships most cost-effective? (3) From the user’s perspective, what factors differentiate the comparative cost-effectiveness among alternative modes for first/last mile trips? What are the equity implications of each alternative mode?


  • English


  • Status: Completed
  • Funding: $191786
  • Contract Numbers:


  • Sponsor Organizations:

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology

    University Transportation Centers Program
    Department of Transportation
    Washington, DC  United States  20590
  • Managing Organizations:

    Center for Teaching Old Models New Tricks (TOMNET)

    Arizona State University
    Tempe, AZ  United States  85287
  • Project Managers:

    Pendyala, Ram

  • Performing Organizations:

    University of Washington, Seattle

    1107 NE 45th Street, Suite 535
    Seattle, WA  United States  98105
  • Principal Investigators:

    Shen, Qing

  • Start Date: 20220801
  • Expected Completion Date: 20230731
  • Actual Completion Date: 0
  • USDOT Program: University Transportation Centers Program

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01868142
  • Record Type: Research project
  • Source Agency: Center for Teaching Old Models New Tricks (TOMNET)
  • Contract Numbers: 69A3551747116
  • Files: UTC, RIP
  • Created Date: Dec 21 2022 11:24AM