Fare Policies, Structures, and Technologies -- 2022 Updates

TCRP Report 10: Fare Policies, Structures, and Technologies, published in 1996, provides a review of fare payment and collection techniques at transit agencies across the United States and selected other countries. This report includes case study analyses and a review of technology trends. TCRP Report 94: Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update was published in 2003. In the 18 years since 2003, TCRP has performed research and published reports covering a variety of targeted fare payment policies and questions, including TCRP Synthesis 101: Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems published in 2016; TCRP Synthesis 144: Multimodal Fare Payment Integration in 2020; and TCRP Synthesis 160: Fare Capping: Balancing Revenue and Equity Impacts in 2022. However, no major study to assess the state of fare policies, structures, and technologies has been performed or published, although the transit fare payment landscape has changed since 2003. Agencies need guidance and best practices on new ways of thinking about fares and fare products, including innovative new concepts unlocked by the latest in fare payment technologies. Since TCRP Report 94, transportation network companies (TNCs) have started offering mobile application–based shared or private rides with frictionless fare payment, upping the bar for increased ease of transit fare payment. Technological innovation in open payments, mobile technology, near-field communication (NFC) and Bluetooth, and cashless transactions has changed how customers want to pay for their services. The COVID-19 pandemic forced bus operators to eliminate fare collection due to operator health and safety concerns, providing agencies an opportunity to reevaluate fare collection. Perhaps most importantly, the recent national discourse about social justice and equity has agencies looking for best practices for equitable fare enforcement, with many considering eliminating fares. This research aims to provide an updated look at fares: structures, products, payment technologies, integrations, and equity. This would take the form of another update to past TCRP reports on fare policies, structures, and technologies.


  • English


  • Status: Proposed
  • Funding: $300000
  • Contract Numbers:

    Project A-49

  • Sponsor Organizations:

    Transit Cooperative Research Program

    Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC    20001

    Federal Transit Administration

    1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
    Washington, DC  United States  20590
  • Project Managers:

    Parker, Stephan

  • Start Date: 20221213
  • Expected Completion Date: 0
  • Actual Completion Date: 0

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01866948
  • Record Type: Research project
  • Source Agency: Transportation Research Board
  • Contract Numbers: Project A-49
  • Files: TRB, RIP
  • Created Date: Dec 13 2022 9:46AM