Experimentation, Demonstration and Testing of PNT Related Threats, Risks, and Mitigations to HATS

The investigation of PNT issues will rely on both simulated data as well as field data collected on actual traffic corridors and the TRC Smart City testing facility. Researchers will use multiple vehicles equipped with sensing (radar, lidar, and camera) and communication equipment that will be able to travel with traffic at the selected test locations to collect data for the scenarios, and will constitute the basis for assessing risks and vulnerabilities to an assortment of modes, and transportation contexts, and potential mitigation possibilities. The study team proposes to conduct thorough PNT sensor threat testing on a representative sensor fusion platform that provides PNT estimation to an automated vehicle. One sensor fusion platform, which mounts above the cab of a ground vehicle, includes (1) three separate GNSS receivers, (2) two all-frequency GNSS antennas, (3) three different types of IMUs, (4) stereo visible light cameras, (5) a triad of automotive radar sensors, and (6) V2X connectivity for cooperative sensing. Sensors will be subjected to systematic denial (i.e., jamming) and deception (i.e., spoofing) attacks, starting with individual sensor attacks and ending in cross-sensor coordinated attacks, to evaluate the resilience of the PNT sensing platform and its underlying algorithms to deliberate malfeasance. ++++++++++ (Task 2.4) Analysis, Simulation, and Experimental Demonstration and Testing of PNT Threat Scenarios and Risks: The study team will report on the simulation and field experiments and demonstrations conducted of PNT threats and scenarios. ++++++++++ (Task 3.2) Highly Automated Vehicle Threat Testing: The study team will report on the results of testing vulnerabilities and threats, including interference and spoofing, and potential mitigation techniques for modern multi-sensor PNT fusion platforms. ++++++++++ (Task 4.2) PNT Integrity Monitoring: The study team will study modern receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) techniques which should harness significant benefits from the GPS III extended data structure as well as from using multiple GNSS constellations. Since certain data messages are not yet declared operational and constellations are incomplete, these efforts will be primarily based on simulations. In addition, the study team will extend RAIM to incorporate terrestrial and LEO satellite SOPs when available. Scenarios in various combinations, including multipath, signal blockage, and jamming and spoofing will be evaluated. Since the team has a full spectrum of GPS/GNSS receivers, actual tests will be conducted to assess the developed methodologies and practices for standardized testing. These tests, including laboratory and in situ sessions, will be primarily land vehicle based. The outcome of these investigations will be in a sense complementary to the DHS Best Practices document, which is focused on static receiver deployment and protection with guidelines for users and manufacturers.