Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Pedestrians and Bicyclists: A Literature Review

This project will provide information on behavioral safety considerations surrounding interactions between automated vehicles (AVs) and pedestrians and bicyclists so that NHTSA can develop countermeasure programs to help reduce the number of pedestrian and bicyclist injuries and fatalities. A literature review will be conducted to investigate the current knowledge surrounding safety considerations for pedestrians and bicyclists when interacting with AVs. As a whole, the body of automated vehicle research is rapidly expanding; however, details of safety and interactions of pedestrians and bicyclists with AVs are limited. Some of the safety issues to consider when looking at these interactions include, but are not limited to, detection problems on the part of the AV, lack of communication of intent between AVs (e.g., lights and signals, passenger-carrying and non-passenger-carrying) and pedestrians and bicyclists (e.g., gestures and facial expressions), right of way laws that differ by jurisdiction and State, pedestrians and bicyclists feeling more confident of AV movements (leading to both positive and negative outcomes - more walking/bicycling, maneuvering into traffic, over-trust of AVs, hostility/gaming), and traffic flow and pattern changes (e.g., more congestion, pedestrians crossing at unspecified locations). Alternate (from duplicate) abstract: The focus of this project is synthesizing the role of vehicle automation as it relates to pedestrian and bicycle safety, with specific attention to the wide spectrum of pedestrians and bicyclists and their behaviors. This includes older pedestrians, children, people using canes and other assistive mobility devices, people with cognitive and sensory disabilities, people using micromobility devices, as well as often marginalized groups such as low-income populations, women, Black, Indigenous, and people of color. The review will identify, assess, and synthesize current literature and research on behavioral safety considerations surrounding interactions between AVs and pedestrians and bicyclists as well as research gaps.


    • English


    • Status: Active
    • Funding: $288418
    • Contract Numbers:



    • Sponsor Organizations:

      National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

      1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
      Washington, D.C.  United States  20590

      Office of Behavioral Safety Research

      1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
      Washington, District of Columbia  United States  20590
    • Managing Organizations:

      National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

      1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
      Washington, D.C.  United States  20590
    • Project Managers:

      Hamel, Rachel

    • Performing Organizations:

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      UNC-CH New East Building
      Campus Box #3140
      Chapel Hill, North Carolina  United States  27599-3140
    • Principal Investigators:

      Hamel, Rachel

    • Start Date: 20210930
    • Expected Completion Date: 20241231
    • Actual Completion Date: 0
    • USDOT Program: Behavioral Safety Research
    • Subprogram: Bicyclist Safety
    • Subprogram: Pedestrian Safety

    Subject/Index Terms

    Filing Info

    • Accession Number: 01786421
    • Record Type: Research project
    • Source Agency: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    • Contract Numbers: DTNH2217D00042, 693JJ921F000120
    • Files: RIP, USDOT
    • Created Date: Oct 26 2021 2:47PM