Optimizing the Performance of Item 404-Low Volume Traffic Mixes

Item 404-Low Volume Traffic (LVT) is an asphalt surface course recipe specification that was developed for use in low volume traffic applications by Flexible Pavements of Ohio (FPO). Item 404-LVT is a mix that is rich in asphalt binder, fine textured, nonrestrictive in aggregate shape and type, with restrictive RAP limits. It can be placed in a thin layer of 1 inch for economy. While the Ohio Depart of Transportation (ODOT) abandoned the use of its Item 404 specification in 2002, various local public agencies (LPAs) throughout Ohio continued to use FPO's 404-LVT on roads with very low truck volumes. The predominate destructive stresses on many local roadways is caused by long-term cracking from environmental factors, as opposed to heavy truck traffic. Much of the information related to the overall performance, longevity and cost effectiveness of mixes from the 404-LVT are based on previous experience of local engineers. Some local engineers utilize mixes from this specification almost exclusively, while others opt to use different mix designs, such as those from ODOT 448 specifications. LPAs that utilize mixes the 404-LVT specification are generally satisfied with its performance, however, it is recognized that the specification could be improved. The goal of this research is to optimize the 404-LVT specification utilized by Ohio's local public agencies. This research will identify opportunities to make simple changes to the 404-LVT specification so it is more cost effective without adversely impacting its performance. Results from this research will provide local transportation professionals with a better understanding of and more confidence in the performance of the 404-LVT mix design. An optimized 404-LVT specification may lead to long-term crack resistant, cost effective, longer-lasting, pavements for low volume roads where the primary stresses are from environmental conditions.


  • English


  • Status: Completed
  • Funding: $154999
  • Contract Numbers:




  • Sponsor Organizations:

    Federal Highway Administration

    1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
    Washington, DC  United States  20590
  • Managing Organizations:

    Ohio Department of Transportation

    Research Program
    1980 West Broad Street
    Columbus, OH  United States  43223
  • Project Managers:

    Fout, Vicky

  • Performing Organizations:

    University of Akron

    College of Engineering
    Akron, OH  United States  44325
  • Principal Investigators:

    Abbas, Ala

  • Start Date: 20210915
  • Expected Completion Date: 20230315
  • Actual Completion Date: 20230315

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01781082
  • Record Type: Research project
  • Source Agency: Ohio Department of Transportation
  • Contract Numbers: 36573, 114248, 136343
  • Files: RIP, STATEDOT
  • Created Date: Sep 1 2021 11:01AM