Mechanical and Economic Performance of an Electric Car Utilizing the Zebra Battery Technology in Vermont

Due to its hilly terrain and cold climate, Vermont offers a unique environment for testing the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In this study, researchers evaluated the performance of a battery electric vehicle. Vermont converted a 2005 Toyota Echo from an internal combustion engine automobile to a battery powered electric vehicle. The researchers examined the overall performance of this vehicle in daily use. In particular, they investigated the influence of air temperature and internal battery temperature on vehicle performance. Additionally, Dr. Varhue considered the economic cost of operating this vehicle. Data was collected over a period of nine months and 260 trips totaling over 5,500 miles traveled. The yearly range of the vehicle in this study was found to be 67 miles, with an estimated energy cost of 7.7 cents per mile.


  • English


  • Status: Completed
  • Funding: $75980.50
  • Contract Numbers:



  • Sponsor Organizations:

    Research and Innovative Technology Administration

    University Transportation Centers Program
    1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
    Washington, DC  United States  20590
  • Project Managers:

    Troy, Austin

    Aultman-Hall, Lisa

  • Performing Organizations:

    UVM Transportation Center

    University of Vermont
    210 Colchester Avenue
    Burlington, VT  United States  05405
  • Principal Investigators:

    Varhue, Walter

  • Start Date: 20070701
  • Expected Completion Date: 0
  • Actual Completion Date: 20081231
  • Source Data: RiP Project 20485

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01566478
  • Record Type: Research project
  • Source Agency: UVM Transportation Center
  • Contract Numbers: DTRT06-G-0018, 021753
  • Files: UTC, RIP
  • Created Date: Jun 16 2015 1:00AM